Monday, February 24, 2020

Managing and developing people Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Managing and developing people - Essay Example Usually, big organizations could have thousands of employees. To manage such a magnitude of employees requires expertise, skill and a deep knowledge of principles of management. Regardless of the size of the organization, human resources are what keep a company moving. This paper discusses the role of motivation in getting work done and especially in increasing employee job performance. The following is a report on the factors that affect motivation in an given organization. The report highlights different technique and human resources theory, which different organizations use to give rewards and maintain a well-motivated workforce. This section of the report analyzes the techniques and theories with an aim of evaluating their effectiveness as strategies made to assist the organization in achieving its goals. It is evident that the task of motivating workforce in an organization is not an easy one and requires that organizations evident enormous resources in the process. Cranny, Smith, and Stone, (1992), defines motivation as the process of empowering an individual to continue acting in a certain positive behaviour. Motivation in organizations is aimed at encouraging employees to take initiative in execution of their duties at the work place. Motivated employees exhibit self-drive and desire to willingly perform their tasks in accordance to the organization’s objectives (Cranny, Smith, & Stone, 1992). According to the Maslow’s theory, employees’ behaviour is influenced by wants and desires which unless satisfied, they continue to determine and influence how an employee will act. In a business organization, employees have their needs and wants, which make them to work. However unless their expectations are fulfilled they may under perform or function in less effective manner. Business organizations have come up with different ways of fulfilling human resource needs. The most important of them is the motivation of workers. Unless workers are

Saturday, February 8, 2020

The Importance of Social Justice in Education Essay

The Importance of Social Justice in Education - Essay Example This paper illustrates that scholars have attempted to describe the phenomena in light of factors like political orientation, religious background, and political and social philosophy. However, in the modern society, social justice is the acknowledged as the ideas of ‘equal’ justice and opportunity for every member of the society transcending beyond a courtroom or the judiciary. It involves providing an equal footing to everyone in all the social strata existing, from the very rich to those below the poverty line. The idea of social justice, while hailed by many supporters as the only moral way to run a society is almost impossible to implement in its pure form as many different factors come into play in deciding the life quality of an individual in a society and controlling all them is not only difficult but leads to further debates about the ethical implications of said control. There are two opposing political stances on the issue. The leftist stance which shares some traits with socialism supports the idea of government involvement to ensure social justice through control of the resources present in the society and equal distribution through legislation pertaining to taxation and programs to help to less privileged. Social justice should mean that basic necessities like food, shelter, and education are provided to all at the expense of the privileged few. The right-wing school of thought accepts the idea of social justice but doesn’t support existing government legislation as no one should be ‘forced’ to provide equal opportunity for others- it should be fostered instead by mutual consent and philanthropic response. Healthcare, employment, education, shelter and child protection are just some of the sectors where there is a lot of pressure to ensure social justice as an economy and society can potentially benefit from a healthy and informed population equally provided with all the resources and the prospect to grow and stren gthen. While social justice aims to uphold basic human rights on the basis of a moral and ethical obligation, there is no denying that social justice can also be thought of a practical solution to boost an economy or general profitability of a nation; this may not be one of the more humane reasoning behind the system but it is a rational one. One of the areas which has benefitted from this school of thought is education, where there has been significant movement to ensure some degree of social justice as a well-educated population is a necessary asset to ensure a competitive edge of any nation in terms of technological advances and improved sectors of military, services, sustenance, resource management, and others. It is also necessary as education is one of the major equating factors which decrease the divide existing in a society and the effects trickle down into other areas, effectively impacting lifestyles and a greater possibility of social justice. Education is also one of the tools through which tolerance is spread in society; as shared knowledge and enlightened minds are much more accepting of diversity and merging cultures. By providing the same learning environment, resources and opportunities for higher learning to children coming from different backgrounds, societies have a much better chance of getting rid of negative social developments like racial and sexual discriminations and prejudices. Thereby creating a more equal and collaborative economy which will have an impact on overall productivity as well as social well being of the population.  

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Racism and Anti-Semitism in America Essay Example for Free

Racism and Anti-Semitism in America Essay Stereotyping reflects expectations and belief about the characteristics of members of groups perceived as different from one’s response and discrimination refers to emotion (www.usnews.com). We all encounter some form of prejudice or stereotype in our life. What types are they? Would you see the lasting affects it has on someone you yourself had discriminated against? Would you recognize the effects it had on you? This author will introduce you to three different stereotypes, fallacious, hasty generalization, and false dichotomy. I will explain the damages being stereotyped does to a person and the lasting effects it has. Aggression, overeating, inability to focus, and difficulty making rational decisions, all are negative effects experienced by those subjected to prejudice, according to University of Toronto Study (Michael Inzticht, 2012). â€Å"Past studies have shown that people perform in situations where they feel they are being stereotyped,† said professor Michael Inzticht of psychology who led the study, published in the month’s edition of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. What we wanted to do was look at what happens afterwards. Are there any lingering effects of prejudice? Does being stereotyped have an impact beyond the moment when stereotyping happens (www.usnews,com)? A person that stereotypes based on negative feelings is a person that is indifferent to accepting cultural diversity and situations that they find dissonance with because that are either entrenched with prejudice from a psycho social paradigm, or make the conscientious choice to be prejudice because of their inferential way of thinking. In Nazi Germany people were imprisoned and even killed for trying to fight anti-Semitism. In America we are free to fight it, but too many of us choose to ignore this hate that dare not speak its name. Anti-Semitism is real, it is murderous and it is very much with us today (www.the-american-interest.com). Anti-Semitism involves beliefs that Jews are more clannish that other people and act in concert to support a specific Jewish agenda. Jews deploy ex traordinary wealth with almost superhuman cunning in support of the Jewish agenda. As a religious and national minority, Jews cannot flourish without attacking the traditional values of their host society. In every country Jews seek to weaken national culture, religion, values, and cohesion. Jews are not a national group or a people in the way that others are; they do not have the same rights to establish a nation state that other people do. Where Jewish interest is concerned, the appearance of open debate in our society and many others is carefully constructed illusion. In reality, Jews work together to block open debate on issues they care about and those who resist the Jewish agenda are marginalized in public discussion. These ideas are the five pillars of anti-Semitism; you don’t have to believe them all- any one will do. Being an anti-Semite does not necessarily make you a Nazi. You are an anti-Semite. That doesn’t make you a Nazi; Hitler added a sixth pillar of anti-Semitism that the only way to successfully oppose the Jewish agenda was to kill all the Jews. This idea have become so widely accepted that they are seldom questioned or examined; when that happens a whole society is poisoned and distorted. Stereotyping is one of the biggest issues in social psychology but relatively little is known about how and why stereotypes form. Conventional approaches to stereotyping assumes that stereotypes are based on erroneous and distorted processes, but others feel that they form in order to explain aspects of social groups and in particular to explain relationships between groups. In particular stereotypes have often been seen as rigid and distorted mental structure that lead people to make serious errors (McGarty et al, 2010). From a social functional point of view race is a social construction, on the one hand it has been a legitimating ideological tool to suppress and exploit specific social groups and to deny them access to material and cultural resources, work, welfare services, housing, political rights, etc. On the other hand, these affected groups have adopted the idea of race. They have turned the concept around and used it to construct an alternative positive self-identity; they have also used it as a basic for political resistance (Miles, 1993:28) and to fight for more antonomy, independence, and participation. There are several forms of stereotyping and prejudice, but I will give you examples of only three. I will explain the stereotype and elaborate on the meanings they present. Fallacious argument is the first stereotype that I will be discussing. A fallacious argument simply means false or not correct, but is usually used to describe someone being deceptively false. Fallacy is a misconception of a false belief. If someone is being fallacious they are trying to get you to fall for a fallacy (www.vocabulary-vocabulary.com). All African American men who drive big cars are drug dealers. Or if a group of African American youth or men stand around in a group they are gang bangers. This is a fallacious belief. African American men have driven large cars as long as I can remember. My uncle all my life has driven nothing but Lincoln Continentals. He is now a retired engineer from the railroad having driven trains for more than thirty years. I have friends that are firemen, teachers, and family men that wound not purchase a car if sit was not as it’s called a â€Å"Big Body.† Next, people stand around and talk, and socialize in crowds all the time, this does not mean they are gang bangers. I have made my sons stop standing around with their friends by a fence in the neighborhood because I did not want them harassed by the police if they should pass by and see them standing there. People assume the worst of people out of fear and or ignorance on their part. The next stereotype that I will discuss is one that I personally experienced. â€Å"Since you are so tall I know you can play basketball.† Being a woman of tall statue everyone assumes that I play basketball. All through Jr. High and High School my physical education teachers tried to get me to play ball. The head coach for the girls’ basketball team even tried to get me to leave band which I loved and play ball for her. I forever heard, â€Å"as tall as you are I know you can play.† I hated basketball, I still do. I never cared for the sport even when I had to play for physical education class. A person’s height and statue does not mean that they would have a passion for a sport that is l oved by others of this statue. Just because I was nearly 6 feet should not have been reason for anyone to feel that I like to play basketball. This argument is false dichotomy. False dilemma thinking or the fallacy of exhaustive hypothesis is a type of logical fallacy that involves a situation in which only two alternatives are considered, which in fact there is at least one additional option. The generalization was made that since I was tall I wanted and liked to play basketball. The third and final stereotype is one that I was questioned about years ago by a good friend of mine. She was a large young lady and short which made her look even larger. She would always seem down and stand offish around a group of people that we did not know. I have always been one to speak and socialize with anyone and somewhat stylish in dress. She questioned me on an outfit that I was wearing saying that I should feel self-conscious because my back was out in the dress and that she would never wear something like that because of her size. I simply informed her that this is her problem; you (she) allow others to dictate how you feel about yourself. They say you should be ashamed or embarrassed about your looks (i.e. weight) and because of this you should act and feel this way, not true. Just because you are not a size 3 and average height does not mean you are not beautiful and should have all the esteem, and pride in yourself as anyone could muster. This argument if fallacious because the inference from the premise to the conclusion is fallacy because of mistakes in the reasoning (Mosser, K. 2010). People who felt they were discriminated against-whether based on gender, age, race, religion – all experienced significant impacts even after they were removed from the situation. The lingering effects hurt people in a very real way, leaving them at a disadvantage. Even many steps removed from a prejudicial situation, people are carrying around this baggage that negatively impacts their lives. People are aggressive in their ideologies because they are adamant in their discriminatory beliefs. Negative stereotyping does have lasting affects because this construct is generally instilled in their children and if this cyclical deterministic view is not broken, such negativity will continue to manifest. Racism and Anti-Semitism is very much alive and still a major problem in this country, and around the world. References: www.ask.com/falsedichotomy www.blogs.the-american-interest.com/wrm www.Ksuweb.Kernesaw.edu/~shagin/logfal-emotion-hastygen.htm http://www.libcom.org/history/article/racism_brief-history McGarty, Craig, Spears, Bussell, Yzerbut, Vincent (1/2002), Stereotypes and Explanation Published: Cambidge University Press, Post Chester, NY, USA, Retrieved from: www.site.ebray.com/lib/ashford/docDetail?docID=10023552pg24=stereotypeing Mosser, Kurt, (2011), Logic and Introduction, San Diego, CA: Bridgeport Education, Inc. Retrieved from: http://www.content.ashford.edu/books Stereotyping has Lasting negative Impact: Prejudice has Lingering Effects Retrieved from: www.usnews.com/science/article/2010/08/12/stereotypes

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Dictating Lies and Deception Essay -- Terrorism, Bush

September 11, 2001 marked a tragic day in the history of the United States; a terrorist attack had left the country shaken. It did not take long to determine those who were behind the attack and a call for retribution swept through the nation. Citizens in a wave of patriotism signed up for military service and the United States found resounding international support for their efforts in the war on terror. Little opposition was raised at the removal of the Taliban regime and there was much support for bringing Osama Bin Laden and the leaders of al-Qaeda to justice. Approval abroad diminished approximately a year and a half later when Afghanistan became a stepping stone to the administration’s larger ambition, the invasion of Iraq. The administration would invent several stories and in some cases remain silent of the truth where would prove positive for the Iraqi invasion. It seems they were willing to say anything to promote the largely unpopular and unnecessary war they were resolved on engaging in. Bush had been eager to go to war with Iraq from the moment he stepped into office and the administration's focus was chiefly on Iraq even before the war in Afghanistan had begun. In Where Men Win Glory, the text reveals that â€Å"in November 2001, President Bush and Vice President Cheney had instructed Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld to secretly create a detailed plan for the invasion of Iraq† (Krakauer 192). Though it is almost unthinkable, the United States had been attacked this very month by al-Qaeda. The government should have been duty bound on capturing Osama Bin Laden and disbanding the terrorist group al-Qaeda. Instead, they were fashioning Iraqi invasion plans. Krakauer establishes additional proof of this stating, â€Å"th... ...n Iraq to be over. Yet, the war was far from over and Iraqis were still fighting against what they perceived as an occupation of their country by the United States. As poignantly realized five years later when over 10,000 Iraqis assembled at the very location of the statues toppling for a truly historic event. The New York Times describes that â€Å"[the Iraqis] gathered in Baghdad’s Firdos Square †¦ to protest the security agreement with the United States that is scheduled for a vote† and â€Å"demonstrators hanged a black-hooded effigy of President Bush from a column with powerful symbolism: it supported the statue of Saddam Hussein that was toppled by American troops in April 2003† (Farrell et al.). In May of the following year the Bush Administration would revisit its previous devices to conceal the truth of the circumstances surrounding the death of Patrick Tillman.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down

December 11, 2012 Section 1: Who is the one to delineate fault for a miscommunication and misunderstanding between two cultures? In Anne Fadiman’s novel, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, she begins the novel as an attempt to allocate responsibility for the mistreatment and exacerbation of Lia Lee’s epilepsy. The tension between the Hmong and United States medical culture exemplified the strain in America between a foreign culture dependent on rituals and society’s norm. As the novel progress, Fadiman realizes that neither culture is truly at fault.Lia’s situation stemmed from a clash of cultural beliefs and practices that could have been solved by a respect and empathy of the significance of cross-cultural communication. Throughout the narrative, there were characters that were able to be culturally empathetic while some were unable to appreciate the cultural differences between the two entities and realize the necessity for cooperation and unders tanding. The Hmong have a saying that they repeat at the beginning of every story, â€Å"Hais cuaj txub kaum txub,† which means, â€Å"speak of all kinds of things† (Fadiman 13).These words depict the belief in the Hmong culture that the world is full of things that might not appear related but actually are. This concept relates to the Hmong’s history. Their development as a culture is tainted with inconsiderate counter cultures that restricted their freedom to practice their cultural rituals. This greatly influenced their ability to trust cultures that are not their own. Their general distrust in any culture different from their own can be mainly traced back to the Chinese and Indochinese portion of their saga.Basically, the Hmong have been chased out of any home they have ever had due to their unwillingness to take orders, their affliction to losing and the imperative detail that they would rather flee, fight, or die than surrender. This all boils down to the fact that they are not easily swayed by other culture’s customs. This ethnocentric attitude has greatly attributed to the Hmong culture’s general distrust and distaste for any culture but their own. Lia’s parents, Nao Kao and Foua Lee, and much of the Hmong community were skeptical of trusting the â€Å"white people† in the medical profession and in the community.In fact, Lia’s case became the litmus test for Hmong community and turned out to be a deciding factor as to whether the Hmong community in Merced, California would trust the medical professionals when they found themselves at MCMC in a similar state as Lia. Despite this inherent distrust of any culture dissimilar to their own, the Lee’s were able to trust one CPA worker, Jeanine Hilt, who took the Lee’s case very personally. Jeanine made it her mission to fight the medical industry tyranny on behalf of the Hmong culture and became the only person to ask the Lees their opinion .Because of the language barrier, many medical professionals saw talking to the Lee’s as a lost cause to communicate with, which led the Lees to believe they were being taken advantage of. Jeanine was the only one who thought to ask how the Lees felt about how the doctors were treating Lia and their culture. Because of this openness to communication and genuine interest in their answers, she explained to the hospital how the Lees, and the Hmong culture, felt about Lia’s epilepsy and why they were running into to so many conflicts with the Hmong culture.Jeanine’s open approach allowed her to see what the barrier was between the Lees ad the medical profession. The Lee’s and the Hmong culture considered Lia an anointed one and her â€Å"illness† as a blessing rather than a weakness. In the Hmong culture, people born with epilepsy are believed to be the anointed ones and are destined to a life as a shaman. They call it â€Å"qaug dab peg,† or â €Å"the spirit catches you and you fall down. † People in the medical profession did not understand the concept of spirits and the importance of epilepsy for the Hmong. Jeanine was the only white person who adamantly fought for the rights of the Hmong.She was able to do this by the ability to effectively and cross culturally communicate. A similar problem occurred when the Lees refused to give their daughter her daily medicine regimen. Lia was taken away from her family and put into foster care. Jeanine fought to get Lia back to her family as her epileptic episodes became more frequent and dangerous. After she succeeded, it was Jeanine’s mission to educate the Lees, especially Foua, on the drug regimen and explain to her the importance of the drugs and to understand Nao Kao and Foua’s aversion to medicine.Hilt was the only person that took the time to listen to Foua and her concerns regarding the unnatural substances. And after Lia’s large grand mal seizu re, she was the only one who tackled the problem of how the Hmong family was treating Lia’s developmental delays. Jeanine’s key to success was always keeping the lines of communication open between herself and the Lees and therefore between the Lees and the MCMC. In order to cross culturally communicate, Jeanine focused on a caring approach that was â€Å"culturally empathetic† and used the Lees daughter, May, as her translator.She did this because having another unfamiliar person in the room, especially a translater, would make the Lees uncomfortable and less open to effective communication. Hilt also took the time to get to know the Lees. She knew the names of all their seven surviving children and most importantly never abandoned Lia or her family even in Nao Kao’s darkest moments. As part of the Hmong culture, they are naturally very violent and are not deterred by being outnumbered. Nao Kao threatened a translator that came and told the Child Protect ive Services were taking Lia away.Jeanine understood the aversion to having someone’s child taken away and made sure the threats Nao Kao made didn’t affect the courts decision to let Lia return. Jeanine’s empathy was deepened by two factors. She understood the burden of a chronic illness because she had asthma. She also admired the connection and closeness of the Hmong families. She was deeply connected to this family and to this child so she harassed the government and the hospital until the Lees got what they deserved. This included a pediatric hospital bed for Lia’s last days at home.This led the Lees to hold Jeanine in high esteem and allowed for a trust that was incredibly hard to earn from the Hmong culture. While Jeanine took the time to understand the Hmong culture, Nao Kao, Lia’s father, did little to reciprocate. He greatly appreciated her attempt at being understanding, however he never believed it was his responsibility to do the same. Even then, Foua was usually the most receptive to Jeanine’s triumphs. Historically Hmongs have become the pariahs of society.With this in mind, Nao Kao never really made the effort to be part of a society that he knew went against his beliefs and therefore was rejecting him. It is also prominent in Hmong culture, that the man is the strongest part of the family and the most emotionally disconnected. While the Hmong were fighting the Chinese, they even killed their wives and children so they wouldn’t be emotionally distracted. Nao Kao hyper masculine attitude led him and his wife to be passively obedient. In the book, Fadiman writes â€Å"It was typical or Hmong patients to appear passively obedient – thus protecting their own dignity by concealing their ignorance and their doctor’s dignity by acting deferential – and then, as soon as they left the hospital, to ignore everything to which they had supposedly assented† (Fadiman 68). This is no way to effectively communicate between two cultures. By Nao Kao affirming that he would give the medicine and not at least trying to explain that it is against his belief and/or he does not understand how to give the medicine, he falsely gives the impression to the doctors that Lia will be cared for at home.Not only does not communicate that he will not give the medicine, but he also doesn’t communicate that he has not given the medicine to Lia when the Lees continue to take her to the hospital seizure after seizure. While the Hmongs believed being epileptic was a sort of blessing, they also understood the repercussions and knew the disease was at least semi-dangerous. That is the reason the Lees continued to take Lia to MCMC over and over again, despite their hatred for the medical culture and the inability to effectively communicate. However Nao Kao Lee was most definitely stuck in his ways.Fadiman explains a observation by Francois Marie Savina as to his first impressions to the Hmong in 1924. Savina, a missionary, stated â€Å"ethnic durability can be attributed to six factors: religion; love of liberty; traditional costumes; refusal to marry outside their race; life in the cold, dry mountainous areas; and the toughening effects of war† (Fadiman 208). The Lee family did little the acculturate themselves into the United States culture and came here to merely escape prosecution. When the Lees came to America, their relatives had to show them how the country worked. They relied greatly on their children.After Seventeen years of living here they still speak only Hmong and practice only Hmong traditions. The Hmong culture is famously stuck in its ways and it was no different for Nao Kao. The mixture between his role in his culture as well as the culture itself lends itself to the inability to communicate between the Lee family and the MCMC medical staff. The first thing that would allow two cultures, such as the Hmong and the United States medical culture, to effectively communicate is knowing what their core values, core distinction, and some key elements to their culture in regards to value dimensions.The Hmong’s value dimensions tend to fall on one extreme, while America falls on the other side of the spectrum. For example, in the Identity value dimension, the Hmong are highly collectivist, which means their core value is group harmony and their core distinction is whether you’re in group/out group. However, the United States population is based on individualist side of the identity spectrum. This means they believe in individual freedom and the core distinction is whether its me/others (Hofstede Pederson Hofstede 94-97).This has a large impact in how two cultures interact with each other because while the United States will believe that the Hmong should do whatever it takes to protect themselves while the Hmong believe they should maintain the peace with the gods or else they will be punished which focusâ⠂¬â„¢ on group harmony. The virtue value dimension also has a strong effect on the differences between these cultures. The Hmong are considered extreme long-term orientation, which values the long-term benefits. The US medical culture is more oriented on today’s effects, otherwise known as extreme short-term orientation (Hofstede Pederson Hofstede 109-112).This shows why the Hmong are so superstitious because they are worried about the futures of their children and even their grandchildren. The medical industry is not superstitious and therefore believes in saving the life that needs saving now and not later. They do not discriminate on between now and later. A lot of lessons can be learned from how Jeanine was able to effectively communicate between the Hmong and US medical cultures. First of all, it is important to be open to new ways of communication between cultures and to not only find similarities, but also understand the differences between cultures.The Hmong culture a nd the Medical culture in the United States seem on opposite ends of the cultural spectrum. In that brief period of Lia’s seizures being decreased and her seemingly getting better, the Lees understood that they had to give Lia her medicine regularly and the hospital understood why the Lees were hesitant about giving their child too many unnatural substances. When the two entities understood each other’s culture and cultural differences, Lia’s health improved and they were able to understand each other beyond the most basic level.This is called being culturally empathetic. Lia’s illness was a test for the two cultures. It was a situation that forced a broken system to recognize its faults and demonstrate how it needs to be fixed. At the end of the day, it doesn’t matter who worsened Lia’s illness because placing blame won’t help either culture understand each other. By the end of the text, as Fadiman is reflecting on the case, she writ es â€Å"I do not know if Lia would be able to walk and talk today had she been treated by Arthur Kleinman instead of by Neil Ernst and Peggy Philp.However, I have come to believe that her life was ruined not by septic shock or noncompliant parents but by cross-cultural misunderstanding† (Fadiman 262). The MCMC has learned multiple lessons from Lia’s epilepsy. They learned to be culturally conscious, they removed the organ donor box from the hospital waiver and posted details about Lia’s case so her illness won’t be mistreated ever again. The key to communicating effectively is to realize that a culture is different from yours and value their judgments just as much as you value your own.Jeanine was able to do it, hopefully Nao Kao will one day do it as well as every doctor in the medical profession, and especially the doctors that are in heavily populated minority areas. Bibliography 1. Fadiman, Anne. The spirit catches you and you fall down: a Hmong chil d, her American doctors, and the collision of two cultures. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1997. 2. Hofstede, Gert Jan, Paul Pedersen, and Geert H. Hofstede. Exploring culture. Yarmouth, Me. : Intercultural Press, 2002 Section II: Throughout my life, I have always been a person who loved traveling.I will always love traveling and someday, I hope to have a job where traveling is a requirement. When I travel, I hoped to come as close to emersion as possible in the time span I’m there. I believe interacting with other cultures can seriously give you a whole new outlook on life and learning perspectives of different cultures and humans always fascinates me which is why, next year, I am planning to take a year off to work at a bed and breakfast in France. People from all over the globe come to bed and breakfasts, which will give e a lot of face time with a lot of different cultures and learn a little bit about everything. My housing and dining will be paid for while I meet people, make lifelong connections and put all the things I learned about in cross cultural communication to work. Cross Cultural Communication opened up my eyes to some pretty basic things that you just never really put names to. The best lesson I learned was on cultural empathy. The idea that you don’t only tolerate another culture, but you understand it at its most basic level is incredibly important in how you connect with other people.A lot of my best friends are actually international and live in other countries. One of my best friends ever lives in Greece and looking back on our friendship, I realize how I subconsciously underwent the process of cultural empathy by asking her about the different practices she went through and the different ways she understood American culture and society. Unfortunately, I did not do the same with my German ex-boyfriend who lived in Germany which probably could have saved a lot of grief on my end.Another lesson I found interesting in cro ss-cultural communication was reflexivity. Reflexivity is the ability and willingness of a researcher to acknowledge their bias. When I went to H Street, I realized my bias growing up in small town liberal suburbia. I realize my bias everyday when I meet people who grow up in different countries, parts of the country or even socio economic class. While interviewing Josh Parrish for my interview project, I saw how different our lives were and yet how similar we were.Reflexivity is not only important to acknowledge for reliable research, but for dependable relationships as well. Talking about white privilege really interested me throughout the course. Growing up as white, I kind of always resented the doors that automatically opened for me in some sense of the word. I can’t pinpoint why, but I like the challenge of overcoming adversity. In the School of Public Affairs Leadership Program, we talked about the idea of Privilege and Power and we watched an interesting TED talks tha t introduced the idea of â€Å"The Power of a Single Story. Acknowledging the different presets in society is important to society and to be able to communicate with each other. If I could change one thing about this class, it would definitely be about the reading. The readings were incredibly numerous and sometimes, I couldn’t finish everything, which led to a serious cycle of me falling incredibly behind. I would’ve loved for a way to cut down the readings, perhaps only read important excerpts or something because the workload was either really hard or very laid back.The lessons I learned in cross cultural communication feel less immense than other classes, but I already notice how I look around and see how these lessons are applicable in real life. I constantly look back at my history and realize how helpful these skills would have been months and even years ago. Being culturally empathetic is the most important lesson I could have learned and I feel was the overar ching theme to the whole course. I found it helpful to learn how to properly acculturate into a foreign culture and while I may not become a foreign diplomat because of this class, I definitely learned some important imformation. Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down December 11, 2012 Section 1: Who is the one to delineate fault for a miscommunication and misunderstanding between two cultures? In Anne Fadiman’s novel, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, she begins the novel as an attempt to allocate responsibility for the mistreatment and exacerbation of Lia Lee’s epilepsy. The tension between the Hmong and United States medical culture exemplified the strain in America between a foreign culture dependent on rituals and society’s norm. As the novel progress, Fadiman realizes that neither culture is truly at fault.Lia’s situation stemmed from a clash of cultural beliefs and practices that could have been solved by a respect and empathy of the significance of cross-cultural communication. Throughout the narrative, there were characters that were able to be culturally empathetic while some were unable to appreciate the cultural differences between the two entities and realize the necessity for cooperation and unders tanding. The Hmong have a saying that they repeat at the beginning of every story, â€Å"Hais cuaj txub kaum txub,† which means, â€Å"speak of all kinds of things† (Fadiman 13).These words depict the belief in the Hmong culture that the world is full of things that might not appear related but actually are. This concept relates to the Hmong’s history. Their development as a culture is tainted with inconsiderate counter cultures that restricted their freedom to practice their cultural rituals. This greatly influenced their ability to trust cultures that are not their own. Their general distrust in any culture different from their own can be mainly traced back to the Chinese and Indochinese portion of their saga.Basically, the Hmong have been chased out of any home they have ever had due to their unwillingness to take orders, their affliction to losing and the imperative detail that they would rather flee, fight, or die than surrender. This all boils down to the fact that they are not easily swayed by other culture’s customs. This ethnocentric attitude has greatly attributed to the Hmong culture’s general distrust and distaste for any culture but their own. Lia’s parents, Nao Kao and Foua Lee, and much of the Hmong community were skeptical of trusting the â€Å"white people† in the medical profession and in the community.In fact, Lia’s case became the litmus test for Hmong community and turned out to be a deciding factor as to whether the Hmong community in Merced, California would trust the medical professionals when they found themselves at MCMC in a similar state as Lia. Despite this inherent distrust of any culture dissimilar to their own, the Lee’s were able to trust one CPA worker, Jeanine Hilt, who took the Lee’s case very personally. Jeanine made it her mission to fight the medical industry tyranny on behalf of the Hmong culture and became the only person to ask the Lees their opinion .Because of the language barrier, many medical professionals saw talking to the Lee’s as a lost cause to communicate with, which led the Lees to believe they were being taken advantage of. Jeanine was the only one who thought to ask how the Lees felt about how the doctors were treating Lia and their culture. Because of this openness to communication and genuine interest in their answers, she explained to the hospital how the Lees, and the Hmong culture, felt about Lia’s epilepsy and why they were running into to so many conflicts with the Hmong culture.Jeanine’s open approach allowed her to see what the barrier was between the Lees ad the medical profession. The Lee’s and the Hmong culture considered Lia an anointed one and her â€Å"illness† as a blessing rather than a weakness. In the Hmong culture, people born with epilepsy are believed to be the anointed ones and are destined to a life as a shaman. They call it â€Å"qaug dab peg,† or â €Å"the spirit catches you and you fall down. † People in the medical profession did not understand the concept of spirits and the importance of epilepsy for the Hmong. Jeanine was the only white person who adamantly fought for the rights of the Hmong.She was able to do this by the ability to effectively and cross culturally communicate. A similar problem occurred when the Lees refused to give their daughter her daily medicine regimen. Lia was taken away from her family and put into foster care. Jeanine fought to get Lia back to her family as her epileptic episodes became more frequent and dangerous. After she succeeded, it was Jeanine’s mission to educate the Lees, especially Foua, on the drug regimen and explain to her the importance of the drugs and to understand Nao Kao and Foua’s aversion to medicine.Hilt was the only person that took the time to listen to Foua and her concerns regarding the unnatural substances. And after Lia’s large grand mal seizu re, she was the only one who tackled the problem of how the Hmong family was treating Lia’s developmental delays. Jeanine’s key to success was always keeping the lines of communication open between herself and the Lees and therefore between the Lees and the MCMC. In order to cross culturally communicate, Jeanine focused on a caring approach that was â€Å"culturally empathetic† and used the Lees daughter, May, as her translator.She did this because having another unfamiliar person in the room, especially a translater, would make the Lees uncomfortable and less open to effective communication. Hilt also took the time to get to know the Lees. She knew the names of all their seven surviving children and most importantly never abandoned Lia or her family even in Nao Kao’s darkest moments. As part of the Hmong culture, they are naturally very violent and are not deterred by being outnumbered. Nao Kao threatened a translator that came and told the Child Protect ive Services were taking Lia away.Jeanine understood the aversion to having someone’s child taken away and made sure the threats Nao Kao made didn’t affect the courts decision to let Lia return. Jeanine’s empathy was deepened by two factors. She understood the burden of a chronic illness because she had asthma. She also admired the connection and closeness of the Hmong families. She was deeply connected to this family and to this child so she harassed the government and the hospital until the Lees got what they deserved. This included a pediatric hospital bed for Lia’s last days at home.This led the Lees to hold Jeanine in high esteem and allowed for a trust that was incredibly hard to earn from the Hmong culture. While Jeanine took the time to understand the Hmong culture, Nao Kao, Lia’s father, did little to reciprocate. He greatly appreciated her attempt at being understanding, however he never believed it was his responsibility to do the same. Even then, Foua was usually the most receptive to Jeanine’s triumphs. Historically Hmongs have become the pariahs of society.With this in mind, Nao Kao never really made the effort to be part of a society that he knew went against his beliefs and therefore was rejecting him. It is also prominent in Hmong culture, that the man is the strongest part of the family and the most emotionally disconnected. While the Hmong were fighting the Chinese, they even killed their wives and children so they wouldn’t be emotionally distracted. Nao Kao hyper masculine attitude led him and his wife to be passively obedient. In the book, Fadiman writes â€Å"It was typical or Hmong patients to appear passively obedient – thus protecting their own dignity by concealing their ignorance and their doctor’s dignity by acting deferential – and then, as soon as they left the hospital, to ignore everything to which they had supposedly assented† (Fadiman 68). This is no way to effectively communicate between two cultures. By Nao Kao affirming that he would give the medicine and not at least trying to explain that it is against his belief and/or he does not understand how to give the medicine, he falsely gives the impression to the doctors that Lia will be cared for at home.Not only does not communicate that he will not give the medicine, but he also doesn’t communicate that he has not given the medicine to Lia when the Lees continue to take her to the hospital seizure after seizure. While the Hmongs believed being epileptic was a sort of blessing, they also understood the repercussions and knew the disease was at least semi-dangerous. That is the reason the Lees continued to take Lia to MCMC over and over again, despite their hatred for the medical culture and the inability to effectively communicate. However Nao Kao Lee was most definitely stuck in his ways.Fadiman explains a observation by Francois Marie Savina as to his first impressions to the Hmong in 1924. Savina, a missionary, stated â€Å"ethnic durability can be attributed to six factors: religion; love of liberty; traditional costumes; refusal to marry outside their race; life in the cold, dry mountainous areas; and the toughening effects of war† (Fadiman 208). The Lee family did little the acculturate themselves into the United States culture and came here to merely escape prosecution. When the Lees came to America, their relatives had to show them how the country worked. They relied greatly on their children.After Seventeen years of living here they still speak only Hmong and practice only Hmong traditions. The Hmong culture is famously stuck in its ways and it was no different for Nao Kao. The mixture between his role in his culture as well as the culture itself lends itself to the inability to communicate between the Lee family and the MCMC medical staff. The first thing that would allow two cultures, such as the Hmong and the United States medical culture, to effectively communicate is knowing what their core values, core distinction, and some key elements to their culture in regards to value dimensions.The Hmong’s value dimensions tend to fall on one extreme, while America falls on the other side of the spectrum. For example, in the Identity value dimension, the Hmong are highly collectivist, which means their core value is group harmony and their core distinction is whether you’re in group/out group. However, the United States population is based on individualist side of the identity spectrum. This means they believe in individual freedom and the core distinction is whether its me/others (Hofstede Pederson Hofstede 94-97).This has a large impact in how two cultures interact with each other because while the United States will believe that the Hmong should do whatever it takes to protect themselves while the Hmong believe they should maintain the peace with the gods or else they will be punished which focusâ⠂¬â„¢ on group harmony. The virtue value dimension also has a strong effect on the differences between these cultures. The Hmong are considered extreme long-term orientation, which values the long-term benefits. The US medical culture is more oriented on today’s effects, otherwise known as extreme short-term orientation (Hofstede Pederson Hofstede 109-112).This shows why the Hmong are so superstitious because they are worried about the futures of their children and even their grandchildren. The medical industry is not superstitious and therefore believes in saving the life that needs saving now and not later. They do not discriminate on between now and later. A lot of lessons can be learned from how Jeanine was able to effectively communicate between the Hmong and US medical cultures. First of all, it is important to be open to new ways of communication between cultures and to not only find similarities, but also understand the differences between cultures.The Hmong culture a nd the Medical culture in the United States seem on opposite ends of the cultural spectrum. In that brief period of Lia’s seizures being decreased and her seemingly getting better, the Lees understood that they had to give Lia her medicine regularly and the hospital understood why the Lees were hesitant about giving their child too many unnatural substances. When the two entities understood each other’s culture and cultural differences, Lia’s health improved and they were able to understand each other beyond the most basic level.This is called being culturally empathetic. Lia’s illness was a test for the two cultures. It was a situation that forced a broken system to recognize its faults and demonstrate how it needs to be fixed. At the end of the day, it doesn’t matter who worsened Lia’s illness because placing blame won’t help either culture understand each other. By the end of the text, as Fadiman is reflecting on the case, she writ es â€Å"I do not know if Lia would be able to walk and talk today had she been treated by Arthur Kleinman instead of by Neil Ernst and Peggy Philp.However, I have come to believe that her life was ruined not by septic shock or noncompliant parents but by cross-cultural misunderstanding† (Fadiman 262). The MCMC has learned multiple lessons from Lia’s epilepsy. They learned to be culturally conscious, they removed the organ donor box from the hospital waiver and posted details about Lia’s case so her illness won’t be mistreated ever again. The key to communicating effectively is to realize that a culture is different from yours and value their judgments just as much as you value your own.Jeanine was able to do it, hopefully Nao Kao will one day do it as well as every doctor in the medical profession, and especially the doctors that are in heavily populated minority areas. Bibliography 1. Fadiman, Anne. The spirit catches you and you fall down: a Hmong chil d, her American doctors, and the collision of two cultures. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1997. 2. Hofstede, Gert Jan, Paul Pedersen, and Geert H. Hofstede. Exploring culture. Yarmouth, Me. : Intercultural Press, 2002 Section II: Throughout my life, I have always been a person who loved traveling.I will always love traveling and someday, I hope to have a job where traveling is a requirement. When I travel, I hoped to come as close to emersion as possible in the time span I’m there. I believe interacting with other cultures can seriously give you a whole new outlook on life and learning perspectives of different cultures and humans always fascinates me which is why, next year, I am planning to take a year off to work at a bed and breakfast in France. People from all over the globe come to bed and breakfasts, which will give e a lot of face time with a lot of different cultures and learn a little bit about everything. My housing and dining will be paid for while I meet people, make lifelong connections and put all the things I learned about in cross cultural communication to work. Cross Cultural Communication opened up my eyes to some pretty basic things that you just never really put names to. The best lesson I learned was on cultural empathy. The idea that you don’t only tolerate another culture, but you understand it at its most basic level is incredibly important in how you connect with other people.A lot of my best friends are actually international and live in other countries. One of my best friends ever lives in Greece and looking back on our friendship, I realize how I subconsciously underwent the process of cultural empathy by asking her about the different practices she went through and the different ways she understood American culture and society. Unfortunately, I did not do the same with my German ex-boyfriend who lived in Germany which probably could have saved a lot of grief on my end.Another lesson I found interesting in cro ss-cultural communication was reflexivity. Reflexivity is the ability and willingness of a researcher to acknowledge their bias. When I went to H Street, I realized my bias growing up in small town liberal suburbia. I realize my bias everyday when I meet people who grow up in different countries, parts of the country or even socio economic class. While interviewing Josh Parrish for my interview project, I saw how different our lives were and yet how similar we were.Reflexivity is not only important to acknowledge for reliable research, but for dependable relationships as well. Talking about white privilege really interested me throughout the course. Growing up as white, I kind of always resented the doors that automatically opened for me in some sense of the word. I can’t pinpoint why, but I like the challenge of overcoming adversity. In the School of Public Affairs Leadership Program, we talked about the idea of Privilege and Power and we watched an interesting TED talks tha t introduced the idea of â€Å"The Power of a Single Story. Acknowledging the different presets in society is important to society and to be able to communicate with each other. If I could change one thing about this class, it would definitely be about the reading. The readings were incredibly numerous and sometimes, I couldn’t finish everything, which led to a serious cycle of me falling incredibly behind. I would’ve loved for a way to cut down the readings, perhaps only read important excerpts or something because the workload was either really hard or very laid back.The lessons I learned in cross cultural communication feel less immense than other classes, but I already notice how I look around and see how these lessons are applicable in real life. I constantly look back at my history and realize how helpful these skills would have been months and even years ago. Being culturally empathetic is the most important lesson I could have learned and I feel was the overar ching theme to the whole course. I found it helpful to learn how to properly acculturate into a foreign culture and while I may not become a foreign diplomat because of this class, I definitely learned some important imformation.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Yes, There Are Chemistry Jokes and They Are Funny

Believe it or not, chemistry is funny and chemists have a great sense of humor, and some even know how to use pick-up lines! Are all my jokes too basic for you? Why is there no reaction?My Chemistry teacher threw sodium chloride at me.... Thats a salt!Little Willie was a chemist. Little Willie is no more. What he thought was H2O was H.Sulfur and oxygen were best buds. They lived far from each other, so in order for oxygen to chat with his pal, he had to use his sulfone!Want to hear a joke about nitrogen oxide? NO.Heisenberg and Schrodinger are driving down the road when a cop pulls them over. The cop asks Heisenberg, Do you know how fast you were going back there? Heisenberg replies No, but I can tell you exactly where I was. The cop begins to be suspicious and proceeds to search the car. Upon opening the trunk he exclaims, Hey, you have a dead cat back here, to which Schrodinger replies Well, now I do! Thanks.Im running out of chemistry jokes. All the good ones argon.Why did the chemists pants keep falling down? He had no acetol.9 sodium atoms walk into a bar, followed by batman.Old chemists never die, th ey only fail to react as a chemist.The guy next to me asked if I had any hypo bromide, I said NaBrO.What did the nerd say when he failed a test? Ytterbium.A proton and a neutron are walking down the street. The proton says, Wait, I dropped an electron help me look for it. The neutron says, Are you sure? The proton replies, Im positive.Random Person: Why do you react violently when we put you in H20? Chemistry Cat: Because my race contains iron, lithium and neon FeLiNe origins.First man orders Id like H2O. The second man orders Id like H2O too. The second man died.The atom asks the electron,  why are you small? The electron replies, because I have a low charge!This joke is sodium funny... I slapped my neon that one.What do you call a tooth in a glass of water? A one molar solution!Here is a pick-up line: You must be copper and tellurium cause you sure are CuTe!  He was a boron; he couldnt even follow the octet rule. He had a solid network but wasnt a diamond. To a chemist only s ix states matter.A neutron walked into a bar and asked how much for a drink. The bartender replied, for you, no charge.In the world of chemicals, a constant battle rages between the chemical supervillains and the chemical super agents. The most esteemed of these is one (OO)7, international dyeing agent of mystery. On one particularly hairy mission, he finds himself pitted against the evil genius of lore, Dr. Nitrogen Monoxide, who has set a devious trap in the form of an ordinary piece of white cloth. After falling through a cleverly placed mechanosensitive membrane protein, (OO)7 is shocked to find himself soaking into a tightly bound mesh of cotton fibers. (He is, after all, a dyeing agent.) In desperation, he calls to his nemesis, Do you expect me to talk, NO? The villain only chuckles maniacally. No Mr. Dye, I expect you to bond.The noble gases walk into a bar. No one reacts.Wanted by the Law: Schrodingers Cat, Dead And/Or Alive

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Principles and Practice of Assessment - 8550 Words

7304 City and Guild CTLLS Certificate in Teaching in the Lifelong Learning Sector Unit 3: Principles and practice of assessment The topics I am researching are: Principles of assessment, different methods, strengths and limitations of these Peer and self-assessment How feedback and questioning contribute to the assessment process The types of assessment records which would be used to meet organizational and external requirements Rationale Part of my role as beauty tutor is to assess my students at one time or other. The assessment will be carry out to discover whether or not a student could perform a specific task in the beauty salon, or to judge if the student has mastered a new skill or the amount of theory or knowledge the†¦show more content†¦The reliability of an assessment in a perfect situation should produce the same results if marked by another tutor or if that examiner unknowingly receives the same paper again. If different marks are given the assessment is consequently unreliable and proves that this assessment is subjective. Subjectivity, as before linked with tutor’s personal opinions/ decisions. So the result could vary between work colleagues and the answer could be inaccurate as there are no definitive answers supplied. This is walking a fine wire as to the quality of the assessment, because the tutor’s answer not only depends on their opinion but also their history or relationship with that learner. This again makes this very unreliable and invalid. Objectivity is based around set criteria or answers which leaves no room for personal opinion. As a result this can be a reliable and valid method as it is measuring set criteria not personality. This will result in a pass or fail and gives no room for feedback so the tutor is unaware on what the learner failed on. For that reason the learner will keep making the same mistake over and over. Safe and fair relates to the learning environment being made safe and comfortable to help facilitate learning. This can also help with any confidential matters the learners have, which enables trust. This fulfils the learner’s basic needs according to Maslow’s theory. Power relationship refers to theShow MoreRelatedPrinciples and Practices of Assessment953 Words   |  4 PagesPrinciples and practices of assessment By Donna Fowler The aim of this assignment is to show my understanding of the types and methods of assessment used within lifelong learning the legal requirements of record keeping. 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